copy and deep copy in python

In the tutorial of Numpy, there a section called Copies and Views, as a newbie of Python, I was shocked. In particular, some priori information of Matlab aggravate the feeling even more. Let’s take a look at what happened in Python when I want to copy the value of one variable to another one.

1 No Copy at All

Naturally, when I execute b=a in any language. b is expected to have the value of a , and if a and b are both array of int , then after b=a , I execute b[1]=b[1]+1 will make b[1] greater than a[1] by 1. However, this is not the case in Python.

For example:

import numpy as np
a = np.arange(12)
b = a

The statement of b is a will return True which means that b and a are two names for the same array object. b and a behave like the pointer in C. if you execute b[1] = 555 ,then a[1] will be 555 too.

Also, if you use the id() function, id(a) and id(b) will return the same value. The id() function return the unique identifier of an object. If two objects have the same identifier, the two objects are actually one object.

2 view or Shallow Copy

view is a good word for what shallow copy mean. For a large value, if you want to change part of it, you view the part you want to change.

For example,

import numpy as np
a = np.random.random((3,5))

If you just want to change the second and the third column of a, you view the part you want change by slicing it:

p = a[:,1:3]
p[:] = 10

Then the second and third column will be all 10 . view behaves like the microscope. Only the part of viewed will be shared by the two objects.

3 Deep Copy

What? deep copy? Yes, it’s deep copy that implement the real copy as we expect.

b = a.copy()

Then b is a complete copy of a. b and a will not share the same object id. This is what the copy we want.

For example, if you have:

import numpy as np
a = np.arange(4)
b = a.copy()
b[0] = 4

you will have b equals [4,1,2,3] and a equals [0,1,2,3] . Now b and a

4 only happened in array

Fortunately, the three version copy just happened on array type. when b and a are just integers or float numbers, = will implement the real copy.

For example, when you have:

a = 2
b = a
b += 2

then you get b=4 and a=2

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